07 Aug 2017

Improving Student Learning with Effective Learning Techniques Part 3: Summarization

Students often need to read and understand a lot of information by extracting the more important ideas. This requires discarding less important ideas and connecting ideas within a text. Accomplishing these goals requires student to write summaries of to-be-learned texts (often as part of or pre-requisite to  text analysis and evaluation). Although summarizing a text is considered an instructional goal of its own right, the post is only concerned whether improve student performance on subsequent criterion tests on the same materials.

 

Description and Why it should work

As an introduction to the issues relevant to summarization, we begin with a description of a prototypical experiment. Bretzing and Kulhavy (1979) had high school juniors and seniors study a 2,000-word text about a fictitious tribe of people. Students were assigned to one of five learning conditions and given up to 30 minutes to study the text. After reading each page, students in a summarization group were instructed to write three lines of text that summarized the main points from that page. Students in a note-taking group received similar instructions, except that they were told to take up to three lines of notes on each page of text while reading. Stu- dents in a verbatim-copying group were instructed to locate and copy the three most important lines on each page. Students in a letter-search group copied all the capitalized words in the text, also filling up three lines. Finally, students in a control group simply read the text without recording anything. (A subset of students from the four conditions involving writing were allowed to review what they had written, but for present purposes we will focus on the students who did not get a chance to review before the final test.) Students were tested either shortly after learning or 1 week later, answering 25 questions that required them to connect information from across the text. On both On both the immediate and delayed tests, students in the summarization and note-taking groups performed best, followed by the students in the verbatim-copying and control groups, with the worst performance in the letter-search group

(see Fig. 3).

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Bretzing and Kulhavy’s (1979) results fit nicely with the claim that summarization boosts learning and retention because it involves attending to and extracting the higher-level meaning and gist of the material. The conditions in the experiment were specifically designed to manipulate how much students processed the texts for meaning, with the letter-search condition involving shallow processing of the text that did not require learners to extract its meaning.

More than just facilitating the extraction of meaning, however, summarization should also boost organizational processing, given that extracting the gist of a text requires learners to connect disparate pieces of the text, as opposed to simply evaluating its individual components (similar to the way in which note-taking affords organizational processing;

So how strong is the evidence that summarization is a beneficial learning strategy? One reason this question is difficult to answer is that the summarization strategy has been implemented in many different ways across studies, making it difficult to draw general conclusions about its efficacy.

Studies show that “summarization is not one strategy but a family of strategies”. Depending on the particular instructions given, students’ summaries might consist of single words, sentences, or longer paragraphs; be limited in length or not; capture an entire text or only a portion of it; be written or spoken aloud; or be produced from memory or with the text present.

The focus on training students to summarize reflects the belief that the quality of summaries matters. If a summary does not emphasize the main points of a text, or if it includes incorrect information, why would it be expected to benefit learning and retention? Consider a study by Bednall and Kehoe (2011, Experiment 2), in which undergraduates studied six Web units that explained different logical fallacies and provided examples of each. Of interest for present purposes are two groups: a control group who simply read the units and a group in which students were asked to summarize the material as if they were explaining it to a friend. Both groups received the following tests: a multiple-choice quiz that tested information directly stated in the Web unit; a short-answer test in which, for each of a list of presented statements, students were required to name the specific fallacy that had been committed or write “not a fallacy” if one had not occurred; and, finally, an application test that required students to write explanations of logical fallacies in examples that had been studied (near transfer) as well as explanations of fallacies in novel examples (far transfer). Summarization did not benefit overall performance, but the researchers noticed that the summaries varied a lot in content; for one studied fallacy, only 64% of the summaries included the correct definition. Higher-quality summaries that contained more information and that were linked to prior knowledge were associated with better performance.

Several other studies have supported the claim that the quality of summaries has consequences for later performance. Garner (1982) showed that the quality of summaries matters: Under- graduates read a passage on Dutch elm disease and then wrote a summary at the bottom of the page. Five days later, the students took an old/new recognition test; critical items were new statements that captured the gist of the passage. Students who wrote better summaries (i.e., summaries that captured more important information) were more likely to falsely recognize these gist statements, a pattern suggesting that the students had extracted a higher- level understanding of the main ideas of the text.

 

Generalizability

Learning conditions

Many different types of summaries can influence learning and retention; summarization can be simple, requiring the generation of only a heading or a single sentence per paragraph of a text , or it can be as complicated as an oral presentation on an entire set of studied material . Whether it is better to summarize smaller pieces of a text (more frequent summarization) or to capture more of the text in a larger summary (less frequent summarization) has been debated . The debate remains unresolved, perhaps because what constitutes the most effective summary for a text likely depends on many factors (including students’ ability and the nature of the material).

One other open question involves whether studied material should be present during summarization. Few studies pointed out that having the text present might help the reader to succeed at identifying its most important points as well as relating parts of the text to one another. However, summarizing a text without having it present involves retrieval, which is known to benefit memory, and also prevents the learner from engaging in verbatim copying. The answer to whether studied text should be present during summarization is most likely a complicated one, and it may depend on people’s ability to summarize when the text is absent.

 

Student Characteristics

Most of the research on individual differences has focused on the age of students, because the ability to summarize develops with age. However, younger students (e.g., middle school students) can benefit from summarization following extensive training and this benefit was linked to improvements in note-taking. It also it seems plausible that students with more domain-relevant knowledge would be better able to identify the main points of a text and extract its gist.

 

Materials

For the most part, characteristics of materials have not been systematically manipulated, which makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions about this factor, even though 15 years have passed establishing its importance.

 

Criterion tasks

The majority of summarization studies have examined the effects of summarization on either retention of factual details or comprehension of a text (often requiring inferences) through performance on multiple-choice questions, cued recall questions, or free recall. Other benefits of summarization include enhanced metacognition (with text- absent summarization improving the extent to which readers can accurately evaluate what they do or do not know and improved note-taking following training.

Whereas several studies have shown benefits of summarization (sometimes following training) on measures of application, others have failed to find such benefits. One week after learning, students who had summarized performed no differently than students in a control group who had only read the passages in answering questions that tapped a basic level of knowledge (fact and comprehension questions). Students benefited from summarization when the questions required the application or analysis of knowledge, but summarization led to worse performance on evaluation and synthesis questions.

Across studies, results have also indicated that summarization helps later performance on generative measures (e.g., free recall, essays) more than it affects performance on multiple- choice or other measures that do not require the student to produce information. Because summarizing requires production, the processing involved is likely a better match to generative tests than to tests that depend on recognition.

Finally, concerning test delays, several studies have indicated that when summarization does boost performance, its effects are relatively robust over delays of days or week. Similarly, benefits of training programs have persisted several weeks after the end of training.

 

Implementation Issues

Summarization would be feasible for undergraduates or other learners who already know how to summarize. For these students, summarization would constitute an easy-to-implement technique that would not take a lot of time to complete or understand. The only concern would be whether these students might be better served by some other strategy, but certainly summarization would be better than the study strategies students typically favor, such as highlighting and rereading. Relatively intensive training programs are required for middle school students or learners with learning disabilities to benefit from summarization.

 

Overall Assessment: Low Utility

On the basis of the available evidence, we rate summarization as low utility. It can be an effective learning strategy for learners who are already skilled at summarizing; however, many learners (including children, high school students, and even some undergraduates) will require extensive training, which makes this strategy less feasible. Although summarization has been examined with a wide range of text materials, many researchers have pointed to factors of these texts that seem likely to moderate the effects of summarization (e.g., length), and future research should be aimed at investigating such factors. Finally, although many studies have examined summarization training in the classroom, what are lacking are classroom studies examining the effectiveness of summarization as a technique that boosts students’ learning, comprehension, and retention of course content.

 

References

 

Bretzing, B. H., & Kulhavy, R. W. (1979). Notetaking and depth of processing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 4, 145–153.

Bednall, T. C., & Kehoe, E. J. (2011). Effects of self-regulatory instructional aids on self-directed study. Instructional Science, 39, 205–226.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612453266

Garner, R. (1982). Efficient text summarization: Costs and benefits. Journal of Educational Research, 75, 275–279.

 

 

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22 Jul 2017

Improving Student Learning with Effective Learning Techniques Part 2: Self-Explanation

Description and Why it should work

In the originative study on self-explanation, Berry (1983) explored its impacts on logical reasoning using the Wason card-selection task. In this task, a student might see four cards labeled “A,” “4,” “D,” and “3″ and be asked to indicate which cards must be turned over to test the rule “if a card has A on one side, it has 3 on the other side” (an instantiation of the more general “if P, then Q” rule). Students were first asked to solve a concrete instantiation of the rule (e.g., flavor of jam on one side of a jar and the sale price on the other); accuracy was near zero. They then were provided with a mini- mal explanation about how to solve the “if P, then Q” rule and were given a set of concrete problems involving the use of this and other logical rules (e.g., “if P, then not Q”). For this set of concrete practice problems, one group of students was prompted to self-explain while solving each problem by stating the reasons for choosing or not choosing each card. Another group of students solved all problems in the set and only then were asked to explain how they had gone about solving the problems. Students in a control group were not prompted to self-explain at any point. Accuracy on the practice problems was 90% or better in all three groups. However, when the logical rules were instantiated in a set of abstract problems presented during a subsequent transfer test, the two self-explanation groups substantially outperformed the control group (see Fig. 2). In a second experiment, another control group was explicitly told about the logical connection between the concrete practice problems they had just solved and the forthcoming abstract problems, but they fared no better (28%).

As described above, students explain some aspect of their processing during learning. Self-explanation may augment learning by integrating information with existing prior knowledge.  Although it is conceptually similar to elaborative interrogation, self-explanation has been much more variable across studies, However, the a major concern is that self-explanation prompts variations are highly dependent on content, as they largely differ between content-free and content-specific.

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Content-free self-explanation is easier for students to learn on their own while content-specific need specific structure form prompting and is specifically aligned to assessments. In a nutshell, teach students to independently use self-explanation prompts independently like in homework assignments  and keep content-specific prompts for in class or when teacher is there.

Generalizability
Learning conditions

Self-explanation is found highly effective with direct instruction and discovery learning. In term so moderating effect, retrospective self-explanation produced an effect compared to no self-explanation, but the concurrent self-explanation produced a higher effect than the retrospective one. This is important as it encourages what I call “on-action” and “in-action” explanations. However, when students were allowed to access explanations, the effect was drastically diminished. Most probably learners haven’t earnestly attempted answering self-explanation prompts before consulting provided explanations. This is why when I am approached by some parent or teacher on why I encourage students to “figure-it” out whilst reflecting-in-action, I tell them that this is the best way the student can learn.

Student Characteristics

Self-explanation has vertical effect, as it applies to young as well as older learners. However, generalizability on different levels of prior knowledge and/or ability needs more research. One study however found the same gain in both high and low level student groups from an explanatory text about circulatory system. Another study however, should that lower-skill level of grade 9 students had more gains than higher-level ones.

Materials

One of self-explanation strengths is that it is applied across different tasks and in different domains with increased student learning.It  facilitates the solving of various kinds of math problems, including simple addition problems for kindergartners, mathematical-equivalence problems for elementary-age students, and algebraic formulas and geometric theorems for older learners. It improves student teachers’ evaluation of the goodness of practice problems for use in classroom instruction. It helps younger learners overcome various kinds of misconceptions, It also improves children’s pattern learning and adults’ learning of endgame strategies in chess. Several studies have also shown self- explanation effects for learning from text, including both short narratives and lengthier expository texts.

Criterion tasks

Self-explanation effects have been shown on a wide range of criterion measures. It has effects on standard measures of memory, including free recall, cued recall, fill-in-the-blank tests, associative matching, and multiple-choice tests tapping explicitly stated information. Studies involving text learning have also shown effects on measures of comprehension, including  diagram-drawing tasks, application-based questions, and tasks in which learners must make inferences on the basis of information implied but not explicitly stated in a text.

Virtually every study has shown that self-explanation has an effect on near-transfer tests. Effect on far-transfer tests have been shown typically in math problems and pattern learning.

However, the durability of self-explanation is a real concern. Most of the studies on self-explanation included few minutes to one hour or post-activity criterion test. Only very few studies have shown effects in a 1 week delay in narrative reading and 2 week delay in learning geometric theorems. 

Implementation Issues

As noted above, self-explanation has a broad applicability in many tasks and acoss many domains. An advantage of self-explanation is that learners need minimal practice prior to completing the task. However, teachers need to give specific instructions and prompting especially for learners with low ability or low-skill as they have been found to paraphrase a text instead of analyzing it.

A significant issue with self-explanation concerns the time spent on it. Learners who use self-explanation spend significant time more than those who don’t.

Overall Assessment: Moderate Utility

Self-explanation has moderate utility of implementation. Further research is needed to establish the durability of these effects across educationally relevant delays and to establish the efficacy of self- explanation in representative educational contexts. Another issue is the over-demanding time learners need to spend in using self-explanation.

Berry, D. C. (1983). Metacognitive experience and transfer of logical reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35A, 39–49.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612453266

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15 Jul 2017

Improving Student Learning with Effective Learning Techniques: Elaborative Interrogation (Part 1)


The achievement gap among students is widening, although there are major strides in the educational systems to bridge the gaps. From my experience as an educator and educational leader, one of the chief factors affecting student achievement is learning techniques. I am talking about the learning techniques that can be reasonably taught to students so that they can independently use it in the same or different contexts at a later date. Many students use ineffective learning techniques that if trained with more effective one can improve their achievement. Many teachers help students to use ineffective learning techniques because they do not know about effective techniques due to their ubiquity (Dunlosky et al., 2013).


A comprehensive review of the literature by Duosky et al. (2013) offered  recommendations for the utility of learning techniques to improve educational outcome. The review yielded 10 learning techniques that are labelled as low utility, medium utility, or high utility. The utility level (degree and scope of effectiveness) was based on the generalizability (educational contexts)  and promise for improving student learning.


In this post series, I will be discussing each learning technique in terms of

  1. General description of the technique and why it should work.

  2. How general are the effects of this technique?

  3. Effects in representative educational contexts

  4. ssues for implementation

  5. Overall assessment


The 10 learning techniques are


2017-07-15_14-05-34Dunlosky et al. (2013


The authors identified generalizability of these techniques’ impact on four categories of variables:

  1. materials

  2. learning conditions

  3. student characteristics

  4. criterion tasks


The authors also stressed the importance factual knowledge not as an ultimate objective but as a prerequisite for deep learning in a subsequent stage – one thing that the new fad into critical thinking in education has overlooked. Therefore, improving student retention of knowledge is essential for reaching other learning targets. They state that “if one does not remember core ideas, facts, or concepts, applying them may prove difficult, if not impossible”.


So, let’s begin with the first learning technique in this post.



Elaborative Interrogation

Explanatory questioning is extremely significant to promote learning, an ample body of evidence suggests. In particular, research has shown that answering “Why?” questions -embedded in elaborative interrogation and self-explanation techniques- can facilitate learning.



Description and Why it should work

Elaborative interrogation , such as asking “Why wasn’t action performed?”,  boosts memory recall. The key to elaborative interrogation  is “prompting learners to generate an explanation for an explicitly stated fact.”

A typical format was followed in most studies for EI prompting “Why would this fact be true of this [X] and not some other [X]?

The predominant conceptual report of elaborative interrogation effects is that elaborative interrogation enhances learning by supporting the integration of new information with existing prior knowledge.




Generalizability

Learning conditions

Although most studies have involved individual learning, elaborative-interrogation effects have also been shown among students working in dyads or small groups.

Student Characteristics

Elaborative interrogation can be generalized to all learners however the extent to how it affects young learners is not clear. Student prior knowledge has significant impact on the EI strategy.

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Effects in Educational Contexts

Mostly,  elaborative interrogation enhance learning in representative educational contexts with few studies conducted outside a laboratory setting. One particular study (Smith et al., 2010) conducted a study on undergraduates enrolled in a Biology course. The study was situated during class meetings in the adjoining lab section. Students completed an assessment of verbal ability and prior-knowledge exam over relational but indistinguishable material to the target one.

In the ensuing weeks, learners were given long and complex texts taken from a chapter in the textbook. For 50% of the learners, 21 EI prompts were “interspersed” throughout the text “roughly one prompt per 150 words” , each incorporating a paraphrased statement from the text followed by “Why is this true?” . The other students were only instructed to study the text on their own pace, without any prompts. El students then completed a T/F questions about the material (none were the same as the EI prompts). Performance was better for EI groups than control groups 76% versus 69%, “even after controlling the prior and verbal ability”.




Implementation Issues

There are two advantages to EI :

1- It requires minimal training for students to learn it. Teachers can start with EI prompts interspersed in the text, or text explanation, and gradually let the students come up with their own EI prompts.

2- The EI is “reasonable with time demands”. It does not take a lot of time on part of the teacher to prepare the prompts at the outset nor training the students to derive their own EI.

However, EI is  limited to “discrete factual statements”. It is not clear to what one should ask the why questions for more intricate outcomes. It work great with  fact lists but elaborating on facts incorporated in lengthier texts requires teachers to guide students on the kind of content to focus on to be productively executed.



Overall Assessment: Medium Utility

The authors assessed EI as medium utility primarily because of it generalizability issues. Studies suggest that it is most effective with factual knowledge and especially with students who have low domain knowledge. Also, benefits for comprehension and long delays need more research and is not clear in earlier studies.

Next post will discuss Self-explanation learning technique.




Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612453266

Smith, B. L., Holliday, W. G., & Austin, H. W. (2010). Students’ comprehension of science textbooks using a question-based reading strategy.

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